Centerline Advantage—To defend against a hand attack in the proper Wing Chun manner—that is, by using Angle Structure to overcome greater force—the student must instinctively combine some aspects of the Centerline Theory and apply them instinctively with proper technique, power, and timing in one smooth motion supported by the appropriate footwork to create optimum Centerline Advantage. For example, when an opponent launches a punch that the Wing Chun fighter perceives as a horizontal pyramid, the Wing Chun fighter quickly and instinctively “sizes up” the situation and recognizes the punch’s pyramid structure. He processes that information while projecting the Defense Pyramid he believes is most appropriate for the position. Because the Wing Chun practitioner is always aware of the Centerline, he already knows where to direct his defense hand’s energy: to a point between the tip of the Attack Pyramid and the Centerline. By doing so, he combines the concept of the deflective reaction of two colliding pyramids with awareness of the Centerline Plane, which tells him which direction to guide that deflection.
The term “Centerline Advantage” is defined as having the tip of your Defense or Attack Pyramid between the end of your opponent’s pyramid and the Centerline. To defeat an attack structurally, the defender must wedge the tip of the appropriate Defense Pyramid between two points: the end of the opponent’s Attack Pyramid and the Centerline. This method requires the least amount of muscular strength, relying instead on the Cutting Angle and deflective power of the pyramid to achieve the winning position geometrically. Whoever can get the tip of their Attack or Defense Pyramid between the appropriate coordinates wins. Suppose your pyramid is pointing down and in. In that case, it will point up and out, giving you Centerline Advantage if the tip of your pyramid also points down and in. This Centerline Advantage position is also known as “Inside Centerline.” However, it does not necessarily mean that the defender’s hand is inside the attacker’s hand, only that the defender “has the line”—that is, he has his hand between the opponent’s technique and the Centerline.
Changing the Line- Physically moving a mighty attack pyramid off the Centerline as quickly as in the Chee Don Sau example is not always possible. When an attack is so powerful that the Defense Pyramid cannot move it off the line, it is necessary to take other precautions to avoid being hit. Suppose the Attack Pyramid cannot be moved off the Centerline. In that case, the Centerline can quickly move away from the attack. Consider the Attack Pyramid and the Centerline, which must be manipulated in proper Wing Chun defense. Suppose the defense hand is placed on the attack hand but cannot move that hand away from the Centerline. In that case, the defender has the option of shifting the position of the Centerline itself rather than attempting to move the attack away from its intended path. All he has to do is change the endpoint of his side of the Centerline Plane by moving his own Motherline. He has moved to a position where his own Defense Pyramid now falls between the tip of the Attack Pyramid and the new line created by his stance movement, resulting in the same Inside Centerline relationship as if he had been able to move the Attack Pyramid off the line.
To summarize, if an attacker attempts to punch you in the nose and you cannot move the punch, move your nose! This can be accomplished by any Moving Stance that changes the line, thereby supporting the defense hand by improving Angle Structure, increasing power, and possibly improving the Angle of Facing. The important thing is that the line is moved in the right direction to gain Inside Centerline as quickly and cheaply as possible.
Although the concept of a Centerline is not unique to Wing Chun Gung Fu, it is visualized and applied in no other martial arts system in the same way. Aside from the Centerline, the Wing Chun man employs pyramidal, circular, angular, and linear structures to defeat opponents through scientific technique rather than brute strength or speed. Proper use of the Centerline, also known as Seen Wai Miu Yoang in Cantonese, heavily relies on correct Self-Structure and, in turn, adequate application of that structure to that of the opponent. The “Concept of Reference” refers to this combination of form and combat application. Wai Jee, or reference, is similar to target shooting in that it requires setting the sights of a rifle to pinpoint accuracy and then aiming that rifle with equal precision. The Self-Structure (the gun sight) and the Applied Structure (the marksman’s aim) should be as accurate as possible. If either element is incorrect, the execution will be subpar and may fail. However, suppose the Wing Chun practitioner’s technique is correctly structured in terms of reference. In that case, he can combine power, focus, and positioning to maximize the effectiveness of the method at hand.
Yin and Yang Motion—The Yin and Yang principles determine the reference and, thus, the application of a technique. To fully understand how this concept works, the reader must first understand the Centerline Theory and The Cutting Angle, which have already been discussed. He must also be familiar with the concepts of Yin and Yang, as well as “The Arc of Power,” which will be discussed further below. Most people are ordinary with the Yin/Yang symbol. However, one must first become acquainted with certain aspects of Chinese philosophy to comprehend its significance.
The symbol itself is a perfect circle divided into two equal but seemingly opposing halves that can represent anything from night and day, male and female, life and death. One half is black (Yin), meaning everything in nature that is negative, passive, feminine, or receiving. The white (Yang) half represents that which is positive, aggressive, masculine, or forceful. And within each half, a small circular section is the opposite color. The contrasting colors represent the two ends of a full spectrum. And the fact that each contains a little bit of the other is meant to convey the idea that nothing can be challenging or it will snap due to brittleness. Nothing can be utterly soft because it would fall apart. However, there is an innate Yin/Yang balance in all things in nature, and it is usually apparent which quality is more prevalent. While we categorize motions as Yin or Yang in nature in Wing Chun Gung Fu, we also strive to incorporate some qualities of both into every movement.
“Soft” vs. “Hard”—Just as everything in nature, from the smallest grain of sand to the highest mountain and beyond, can be analyzed in terms of Yin/Yang balance, the same concept of equal, opposing, yet complementary forces applies equally to the Wing Chun system’s many attacking and defending motions. This leads to the belief of “Yin and Yang Motions.” Yang or “Positive” activities catch the momentum of the torque on the side of the forward-moving shoulder and use its centrifugal force (the power of a spinning circle to throw objects off its surface) to push or impact the opponent. Yin or “Negative” motions on the retracting side that capitalize on centripetal force (the power of a spinning circle to draw inward as a whirlpool) have the opposite effect on the rival, pulling him in or “borrowing power” as they latch on to the “returning” power of the Power Arc.
One of the factors that Complex Motions are structurally attainable in Wing Chun is because of the Yin and Yang distribution of torquing power. As long as the student merges Yin and Yang motions on their correlating sides, he can perform a wide range of Complex Blocks, Attacks, and Double Motions, all of which rely on single pivots to power multiple simultaneous hands/or leg techniques.
After some practice with Centerline Theory defense and attack, the Wing Chun fighter can do both simultaneously and independently. It can be done with two hands at once, moving together. At the same time, each creates its Attack or Defense Pyramid, or with a single movement in a more advanced yet perplexingly simple application.
Complex Attack- When a fighter applies a block or deflection with one hand while simultaneously attacking with the other, the resulting block/strike combination is known as a “Complex Attack” in CRCA Wing Chun. This type of attack is made possible by the fact that each hand can potentially create either an Attack or Defense Pyramid at any time and that the structure of the Wing Chun movement allows for simultaneous technique from both hands. This type of motion causes no loss of speed or power. Indeed, more speed and strength can be gathered into the attack from the initial momentum of the block, which, while appearing to be completely simultaneous, occurs a split second before the attack. To demonstrate the Gang Da motion, the Wing Chun man first circles the wrist of the Gang hand before snapping/sweeping it downward with a stance turn, Bracing step, or other footwork. This initial momentum goes through the waist and shoulders to the punching hand, which enters halfway to its destination and finishes just after the block snaps to full extension.
Complex Blocks and Double Attacks— Following the concept of creating two independent Attack/Defense Pyramids, it can be seen that Complex Motions involving two Blocking Lines or two Attacking Lines, rather than blending the two, are equally possible. The opponent’s actions primarily determine this. When confronted with a potent attack, closely timed one-two attack, or even a two-handed attack, the Wing Chun fighter may go directly to counter with a two-handed block of his own. This is known to as a “Complex Block.” Similarly, the Wing Chun practitioner can launch two simultaneous or near-simultaneous strikes, one or both of which can also be used to block as they attack. An opponent may find it challenging to deal with this double attack, especially if both are strategically directed toward poorly defended or structurally disadvantaged target areas as determined by Centerline and Facing awareness.
One-handed Attack/Defense – Most Wing Chun hand and leg attacks can serve the dual function of attack and defense with a single motion, making them theoretically and strategically more complex while appearing and performing incongruously simpler. This is due to the system’s inherent pyramid structure; each activity is designed to suit a specific need and to reference the Centerline or a Blocking or Attack Line concerning the Centerline. Biu Jee Sau, Jing Jyeung, Chahng Jyeung, Chop Kuen, Gum Jyeung, Inside and Outside Whip or Diagonal Punches, Chau Kuen, Pau Jyeung, and many other Wing Chun multidirectional strikes can be used with the Kuen Siu Kuen principle. All these motions travel in three directions simultaneously, making them more challenging to block while also providing a deflective, penetrating, and wedging action. Even if the opponent blocks the multidirectional shot upward, downward, or to the side, momentum continues to flow in one or two other directions, allowing it to carom off the block and continue forward.
The Arc of Power- To help visualize how the Concepts of Reference and Yin/Yang Motion interact, imagine that an “Arc of Power” is created whenever the stance is pivoted. Power converts from positive (Yang) to negative (Yin) at the Centerline during a stance pivot, as shown in Diagram HH. If there is no opponent, the Original Centerline is the reference point for determining this Yin to Yang conversion. In the first form, the Original Centerline was established. It is the ultimate point of positive power focus (like the apex of a golf swing) or damaging chambering (as in drawing a bow). As the stance is pivoted clockwise to the right from the Choh Ma position, any movement of the left arm originating from the left and traveling up to and including the Centerline on the Power Arc is said to be Yang in nature. Any proper arm movement that begins at or near the Centerline and moves backward along the Power Arc is considered a Yin, or “receiving” motion. As this fundamental concept is grasped, it will be clear that it is possible to create Yang motions with the right hand and Yin motions with the left in the same situation, depending on the origin and direction of the action.
As previously stated, the Arc of Power can be compared to a golf swing with a “Five-Iron,” with the point of maximum power release on the Centerline. Suppose a golfer places the ball on either side of the Centerline between his feet. In that case, he will hit it before or after his club has reached its maximum power point (the center) or after it has slowed down past the center on its way to a stop. In either case, his stance will be unbalanced as he reaches to either side to hit the ball. The Power Arc functions similarly. Because most Wing Chun techniques are aimed at our center, which is then aimed at the opponent, striking to either side of the center will not only throw the process off balance but will also cause the technique to land either before or after it has gathered its full strength at the Centerline. Any Yang technique that is not focused correctly on the Centerline will lose some of its lengths, as its structure requires it to reach its entire size and power precisely at the Centerline.
The Wing Chun student is taught early in his training to pivot his stance for added power. Stance pivoting, or Choh Ma, demonstrates to the student that a single torqueing motion generates a type of twisting force (Juen Ging) that radiates from every point on the Power Arc. This basically means that when the stance is pivoted, the torque created by the pivot is distributed evenly around the waist, chest, and back. One shoulder advances with the same momentum as the shoulder retracted by the same pivoting motion. Just as Yang motions must refer to the Centerline, Yin motions must refer to an exact point in space. That point is known as the Self-Centerline. As previously explained under the heading The Yin Cutting Angle, Yin motions must refer to a different point in space to have the same effect as their Yang counterparts. This is another example of how Wing Chun’s various combat theories overlap and work together to produce a single result. Complex motions like Gahng/Jom Sau or Tan Da rely on a single stance pivot to power two nearly simultaneous Yin/Yang motions.
When the opponent uses any Attack Pyramid, there is an opportunity to defend using the Centerline. As previously stated, all the Wing Chun fighter needs to do is correctly position his own Defense Pyramid to gain the Inside Centerline position. This should be done automatically, taking the shortest and most cost-effective route to Inside Centerline. For example, if your opponent throws a left punch from your right side (i.e., to the right of the Centerline), the most prudent and cost-effective defense would be to create an appropriate Defense Pyramid with either hand and wedge it between his punch and the Centerline, keeping him outside and to the right of that line and never allowing him to reach or pass it.
In other words, if he attacks you from either side of the Centerline, you should usually try to position your own Defense Pyramid before his hand reaches the line. Suppose the attack is directly on the Centerline. In that case, it can technically be deflected to either side. However, there will always be one option that is preferable because it gives you a better “set-up” in terms of Facing Advantage. If you had instead used either hand to block his left punch from the outside in, then carried it across the Centerline to end up on the left side of the line, you would have committed a tactical error known as Giu Sau, or “Forcing/Prying Hand.” Because you failed to recognize and take Advantage of the most convenient and expedient opening for correct Centerline defense, you had to force the opponent’s punch in.
In Chee Sau practice, the beginner frequently makes the Giu Sau error. For example, if his left hand made contact with his partner’s right hand or arm from the outside, and that partner attacked with that hand from anywhere to his right of the Centerline, the correct response would be to defend or change the line with footwork to gain Centerline Advantage. However, many beginners will try to push the attacking hand across the Centerline from the outside (from his left to right). The attacking hand will usually strike the left side of the face, with his left hand not only self-trapped due to its grip on the attacking hand but also assisting the opponent by amplifying the strike’s power.
In attacking mode, the Giu Sau error can also occur. For example, suppose you attempt to throw a proper punch from outside the Centerline, and your opponent correctly positions his Defense Pyramid between your point and the line. In that case, you will commit a Giu Sau error if you attempt to force your right arm across and strike again. The more prudent and cost-effective approach in this situation would have been to hit with the free left hand or to circularly whip the right hand to the inside or outside of the opponent’s Defense Pyramid, regaining the Inside Centerline position.
You could also change the line to reclaim Centerline Advantage with a new attack. The avoidance of Giu Sau becomes instinctive to the Wing Chun fighter after practice to develop the correct reactions. Half the battle is simply being aware of its existence. The other is to understand how to use the Centerline correctly.
In Wing Chun, the term “Facing” (Ying Sai) refers to the frontal reference of one fighter to another. Another time, Ying Chiu refers to a fighter’s “Facing Posture” about another. When one fighter’s “Facing” is frontally referenced to the other’s side or back, “Facing Advantage” occurs. This advantageous position does not constitute victory in and of itself but rather a favorable position from which to attack or defend.
A simple example of Facing Advantage can be found in how old warships fought on the high seas. Because of the fact that their guns were mounted on both sides, pointing out 90° from the bow and stern, they had to pull up alongside the enemy craft before opening fire. The disadvantage was that, while they could focus their firepower on the enemy, the enemy was also well positioned for his simultaneous counterattack. This equal positioning significantly damaged both parties, regardless of who ultimately sank whom. After some experience with this type of sea battle, a clever strategist devised the ploy known as “Crossing the T,” which involves positioning the broad side of your ship directly in front or behind the enemy craft, allowing you to fire freely on the enemy without fear of being hit by return fire. His guns were pointing out to sea, while yours were dead on. The essence of Facing Advantage is to position yourself so that your “guns” are on him while he is pointed “out to sea.”
When a Wing Chun fighter achieves Facing Advantage by facing the opponent’s side or back, he is said to be approaching from the “Dead Side.” The Dead Side is anywhere outside the “Live Area”—the 90° spectrum with its vertex at the Self-Centerline and symmetrically referenced 45° to each side. This is the most challenging area to defend. It is also a problematic angular relationship from which to counterattack when the opponent is facing it. As a result, attacking from the opponent’s Dead Side is the safest option. Diagram BB depicts an overhead view of the Live Area and the Dead Side from three combat positions. When any fraction of your Live Area (however small) is on any part of his Dead Side and no fraction of his Live Area is on any portion of your Dead Side, you are said to have the “Advantage of Facing.” The Live Area is analogous to the searchlights used by correctional officers to spotlight an escaped prisoner running through a field in a typical Wing Chun analogy. The Wing Chun fighter has two roles in combat. He is both the escaped prisoner, using footwork and technique to avoid being illuminated by the opponent’s “searchlight,” and the prison guard, attempting to keep the opponent “lit up” within his Live Area at all times. In Chee Sau, sparring or drills practice, two high-level Wing Chun players are constantly jockeying for position. With this in mind, the significance of Facing the CRCA Wing Chun man becomes apparent.
The “merry-go-round” used by children in the park is a simple analogy. Suppose the merry-go-round is spinning, and two children simultaneously jump off. In that case, one from each side of its diameter will be thrown in one direction and the other in the opposite direction. Similarly, when the Wing Chun man performs a stance pivoting Tan Da, both his Tan Sau and his punch “jump off the merry-go-round” simultaneously. However, the Tan Sau will go in one direction (toward the Self-Centerline), and the energy will go in another (into the Centerline).
The student is introduced to the concept of “Reference,” which in its most basic context refers to the focus of an individual moving to a given point in space through a combination of certain Siu Leem Tau and Chum Kiu motions and the logic behind them. When the student first learns the Syeung Kuen (Double Punch) motion in the Siu Leem Tau form, he is taught to strike vertically with both sets of knuckles on the Original Centerline rather than with one fist stacked directly over the other. This leads to the realization that, even in a single punch, the “reference” to the Centerline should be the knuckle points rather than the middle of the fist. Although a hole is a Yang motion, the knuckles refer to the Self-Centerline because there is no stance pivot in the Siu Leem Tau form. Tan Sau and Woo Sau, as well as other Yang motions like Boang Sau and Jing Jyeung, fall into this category. The Centerline and Self-Centerline do not separate until the Choh Ma stance pivot in the Chum Kiu form, with the Tan and Woo remaining reference to the body and the punch remaining on the original Centerline.
Pock Sau, without a stance pivot, and again when pivoted, concerning the Centerline. Although the stance is not shifted, the Pock Sau slap block in the Siu Leem Tau form (photos A and B) references the past Center, subtly introducing the student to the principle of focusing Yang blocks to the Centerline when they are eventually executed with a stance pivot. This becomes clearer when Pock Sau is seen from above pivoted. Its body structure remains unchanged, with its reference fixed on the Original Centerline.
The Pock Sau slap block motion in Siu Leem Tau laid the groundwork for this concept; the Pock Sau motion originates at the Centerline and moves inward and forward past the line when executed in the form. However, the application focuses on the Centerline while maintaining the same relationship with the body as its non-pivoted form. When students understand the fundamental concept of reference, they can begin to execute the Siu Leem Tau techniques previously practiced in the stationary “Yee” Jee Keem Yeung Ma position, with various other forms of footwork beneath them. For example, the same straight punch described above could be carried out with Choh Ma footwork, which adds torque and slightly changes the angle of the point but does not change the reference.
In other words, when you turn with a punch, the knuckles of the punching hand should land precisely where they would have if you hadn’t pivoted, except for a slight increase in the length of the punch. If you swing and punch again on the opposite side, the knuckles of the opposite hand will occupy the same point in space. The pivoting effectiveness at the start of the Chum Kiu form introduces this to the Wing Chun student. Except for the pivoted stance, this punch is identical to the first punch of the Siu Leem Tau form. Its reference point (the Centerline) remains the same. However, the body now faces 45° outward, and the punch becomes slightly longer and more powerful. The Choh Ma Boang Sau motion also introduced the concept of Yang blocks remaining referenced to the Centerline even when pivoted in the Chum Kiu form. When you practice the form in front of a mirror, you will notice that you are being shown to block the same punch thrown earlier in the state with a Yang block focused on the same point in space as that punch.
The Choh Ma Lon Sau demonstrates how a Yin block remains referenced to your own body, as it did in Siu Leem Tau. In contrast, Yang motions such as the punch and the Boang Sau remain referenced to the same point on the floor that they did in Siu Leem Tau. As a result, the Chum Kiu level student will realize that the Centerline viewed at Siu Leem Tau level was made up of two lines that happened to overlap because you were pivoted to the exact Center. However, as you began to shift, you noticed that the line splits into two—the one that remains “painted” on your body (the Self-Centerline) and moves with you as you move, and the one that remains “painted” on the floor (the Centerline).
The CRCA Wing Chun fighter will always consider the resulting Facing relationship before making footwork that will change that relationship. He will always, no matter how slightly, take a step in the direction that will give him the Advantage of Facing. This strategy is because the slightest Facing Advantage created by the Wing Chun fighter’s first step may be compounded, possibly unintentionally, by the opponent himself. Thus, even if you take a small step to the inside or outside of the opponent’s leading foot from a ready position for the slightest Advantage, the opponent may add to it by stepping further inside or outside of your foot—possibly unaware that he is giving up Facing Advantage as he moves in the only direction that is not blocked by your foot. He is simply following the unobstructed path, which can lead him to the disadvantage of Facing if you have stepped correctly to “set him up” in the first place.
The opponent may be utterly unaware of the advantage. When executing a technique from an Open relationship (you are in a left lead, and he is a right), you will almost always step your leading left foot to the outside of his top right foot. Although the Facing inherent advantage that you are creating may not be obvious, if you continue to move in, or if he moves forward inside of your foot, he will end up with his back to you—Dead Side exposed. When executing Tan Da vs. his lead left Jab from a Closed Left relationship (both fighters in a left leading stance), step to the inside of his leading left foot. Stepping to the outside world, “give him your back” works in conjunction with the Centerline Theory. The ultimate goal is to gain at least one, if not both, benefits whenever you use footwork. Stepping with the correct Facing in mind is also extremely practical with Self and Applied Structure.
The Theory of Facing also establishes the spectrum limit within which you can pivot about the opponent—you must never shift beyond the point where either the outermost boundary of your Live Area coincides with the Centerline, or you will give the opponent the Advantage of Facing. As a result, it is usually in the fighter’s best interest to keep his Self-Centerline directly referenced to the opponent’s Dead Side. This positioning provides him with at least an equal opportunity to attack. It keeps his Dead Side referenced 45° or more from the opponent’s Facing.
This is why, regardless of foot placement, the upper body of the Wing Chun fighter is always referenced within the 90° angle spectrum introduced by the Choh Ma stance pivot. In other words, if the entire lower half of your body were shrouded in a heavy mist from the waist down, the opponent would have no way of knowing whether you are in a turned, braced, forward, or rear stance, only that you are turned to face him somewhere within your own 90° of “Live Area.”
The “Motherline”—In Chinese, the Jick Joong Seen or Jick Seen is an imaginary vertical line that passes through the middle/top of the head and down through the center of the body to the floor, forming an axis of rotation for the body. The Motherline does not change when a person pivots on their axis. However, if the person moves in any direction, the Motherline shifts accordingly. The Motherline, as opposed to the Centerline, is a Surface feature that runs through the center of the body. If you consider the body a cylinder and Spin it, the Centerline will, of course, move. The Motherline would not because that is what the Centerline would be doing.
The “Self-Centerline”—The Self-Centerline, is the vertical line that divides the body into two halves. When there is no opponent, the SelfCenterline runs down the head and body’s middle/front and back like a painted-on stripe. It can be used as a reference point for correct elbow and hand position during technique execution during forms practice. Specific block structures require that the elbow, wrist, or another part of the hand be on the Self-Centerline. In contrast, specific attack structures need the knuckles, palm heel, elbow point, or other areas to be central. When performing the Tan Sau motion in Siu Leem Tau, for example, the middle finger should point 45° inward toward the SelfCenterline from the origin of the action until it reaches that line and continues to follow it as the elbow is drawn in so that both the middle finger and the inner elbow end up on the SelfCenterline in the fully extended Tan Sau position.
In reality, the Self-Centerline arises from the Motherline and radiates outward from the axis of the body. When an opponent is present, the SelfCenterline is used as a reference point in the construction of Attack and Defense Pyramids and a primary target area. Most of the vital issues of the body fall somewhere on this line, front or back, so the Wing Chun fighter will usually focus his attack power on it. If you were to shoot an arrow into your opponent while aiming at the Self-Centerline, your attack would undoubtedly be more damaging than if the arrow penetrated any part of the body that was not on that line. Unless it were aimed at the Motherline from the outside and penetrated far enough to reach the vital organs the long way, the arrow would most likely not pass through any essential organ.
This is why the Self-Centerline must be carefully defended and why it is the primary target of the Wing Chun attack. Furthermore, when a punch lands off the Self-Centerline, the opponent can roll with the force of the blow using the Motherline as the pivotal point, effectively dissolving most of its impact. In contrast, a solid blow to a point on the Self-Centerline will be fully absorbed by the opponent because the pivotal moment is negated by the central focus of the punching power, leaving him no opportunity to “roll with the punch.”
Wing Chun is a highly logical and sensible Gung Fu system that was scientifically designed for and based on human body motions. Ng Mui and Yim Wing Chun built the ultra-effective and economic system of close-range combat practiced today based on geometry, physics, physiology, and philosophy. Complex concepts and principles govern how skilled fighter instinctively applies their techniques. But, of all the ideas and principles that distinguish the system, one is so fundamental to Wing Chun’s fighting strategy that it can be referred to as the “Backbone of the System.”
This “idea,” known as the “Centerline Theory” (Joong Seen Lay), entails recognizing, using, and manipulating an imaginary line or plane that connects two fighters, as well as the relationship of that line or aircraft to various bars and angles of attack and defense. Because the Centerline Theory is based on geometry, two fighters’ motions and postures are referred to as lines, triangles, planes, pyramids, and angles rather than stances, punches, and kicks. As a result, the Wing Chun student must be able to visualize them as such, effectively “depersonalizing” the opponent, himself, and the blocking and attacking motions used by both during combat, allowing all elements to be viewed clinically. This ability is developed through many hours of intense practice on Sticky Hands, sparring, and drills, all of which accustom the student to dealing with relentless attack pressure while remaining calm under fire. While the student may initially flinch or panic when attacked, he will soon begin to view oncoming kicks and punches as routine everyday occurrences, more like “fodder” for technique practice than a severe threat.
At this point, the student can see the lines, angles, and pyramids formed by both fighters and the implications for his structure. This emotional detachment enables him to apply the Centerline Theory. To eliminate the adverse effects of tension, fear, or anger, which can impede the effective use of the Centerline strategy, the Wing Chun fighter must learn to remain calm and relax the mind, even amid all-out combat.
Although the Centerline Theory may appear complex and even a little too confusing to apply in a real-world combat situation at first, the Wing Chun student will discover that once the core concept is grasped, using the Centerline strategy becomes more and more natural. In other words, without consciously thinking about it, the student will begin to apply the Centerline Theory instinctively in conjunction with all other key concepts and principles of the system. Before delving into the Centerline Theory, the major components of its operation must be identified and defined. Once these elements are fully comprehended, the reader can see how they interact to form arguably the most scientific and efficient approach to unarmed combat. The “Motherline,” “Self-Centerline,” “Centerline Plane,” “Attack and Defense Pyramids,” and “Centerline Advantage” (also known as “Inside Centerline”) are the major components of the Centerline Theory, as is the concept of the Giu Sau Error. The following is a detailed examination of each.
Various legends surround Wing Chun Kung Fu’s origins. The one we like goes roughly as follows: The government of Ching was threatened by the combative abilities of Shaolin monks who opposed their political ideology. They intended to attack the temple to eliminate the monks and their political adversaries. The monks were aware of this and believed that they needed to develop a fast-track fighting system so that novice monks’ fighting skills could reach a sufficient level so that they could assist in defending the temple.
According to one version of the legend, the five masters of the temple, including Ng Mui, the recognized founder of Wing Chun, met in the Wing Chun hall (also known as Weng Chun Hall) of the temple to offer their expertise in the development of this system. Out of these meetings, the five masters developed the Wing Chun system. However, before they could teach it, the temple was destroyed, and only Ng Mui survived to pass on the system.
Other accounts disagree with this occurrence and give sole credit to Ng Mui. In either case, it can be assumed that Shaolin’s most advanced or best skills were incorporated into the Wing Chun system. Given this, we can see why the Wing Chun energy training exercises within the forms are very advanced. Because Wing Chun comprises the most advanced and best skills from the Shaolin system, it is implicitly assumed that those learning the Wing Chun energy skills are already familiar with the fundamentals of constructing and controlling chi energy. Each account of Wing Chun’s origins concurs that most of its creation is attributed to a woman who devised it to defeat highly skilled and powerful men. For a woman to successfully beat a stronger and more capable man in combat, she must learn internal Chi-kung techniques.
Additionally, every aspect of Wing Chun is sophisticated. Even the sun punch is a sophisticated technique. You can learn the motion in a day, but it will take months of training and practice to achieve true mastery. This is the defining characteristic of an advanced skill. A fundamental skill is something simple to learn and utilize quickly. A basic karate punch can be known in a single day, and if used that evening, it would cause significant damage. Granted, you would have a different power than a seasoned practitioner.
However, the skill is simple enough that it would be easy to use after learning it. The Wing Chun punch is challenging to master.To do it correctly and with strength requires time spent training. The same holds for all system skills and techniques. Consequently, Wing Chun is an advanced combat form with no fundamental methods. This is also true of the energy skills, as they are all quite advanced, and the system contains no beginner-level energy exercises or abilities. Before attempting to learn the strenuous activities that are classic Wing Chun Chi-kung exercises, a novice to energy work will benefit from learning some basic energy exercises in Wing Chun.
Furthermore, when we teach new students, we start their energy work with the eight pieces of Brocade. This simple moving and breathing series is an excellent introduction to energy. The eight pieces of Brocade are a joint Chi-kung exercise used by numerous Chinese martial arts systems. We should also instruct them in fundamental standing postures to help them develop the energy root and become aware of the sensations associated with Chi. Once they have acquired some proficiency with these more basic chi exercises and skills, we will introduce them to the more advanced Chi-kung movements within the Wing Chun forms.
It is not surprising that Wing Chun is widely misunderstood because it is unique among martial arts. Compared to most other martial arts, Wing Chun was introduced to the public much later than most other styles (especially in the West). Therefore, the public, martial arts media commentators, and practitioners of other arts viewed Wing Chun through the lens of their preconceived notions of what a martial art should be. When some of these individuals decided to study Wing Chun, they typically brought with them all of their previous beliefs and experiences and expected to practice Wing Chun as they would any of the other arts they had previously studied. Unfortunately, there are better ways to comprehend the concepts, principles, and training methods of Wing Chun.
What about Wing Chun sets it apart from other martial arts, and why do most practitioners miss the mark when it comes to mastering this art? Although there are numerous answers to these questions, a person seeking a comprehensive understanding of Wing Chun must comprehend the full implications of the following points even to comprehend them.
It is the only martial art in the history of martial arts developed by women or from a female perspective. Men frequently reject the feminine aspect of art and approach it solely from a male perspective.
Wing Chun’s (shadow boxing) forms were designed to deceive non-martial artists and other practitioners. In other words, appearances are not indicative of reality. The records are encrypted “user manuals” for the Wing Chun system containing hidden messages. When observing Wing Chun forms, practitioners of other arts tend to interpret the conditions superficially and then rationalize the movements with the most obvious explanations. The founders of the Wing Chun system achieved their goals of keeping the art secret and deceiving those who did not fit the Wing Chun family profile.
In contrast to most other martial arts, which train practitioners to read an opponent’s intent and action using only their vision and then automate an inevitable reaction against a specific type of attack, Wing Chun trains its practitioners to read an opponent’s movement through tactile sense, and to react intuitively and intelligently to any action or change within a given combative situation.
Now that these critical points have been discussed let’s consider what Wing Chun is not for a moment.
It is not what is portrayed and perceived in any Wing Chun film produced to date.
It is not what is shown and perceived in popular Ip Man films.
It is not what is offered and perceived on television.
It is different from how YouTube videos are typically presented and perceived.
It is different from what the majority of Wing Chun books present.
It is neither extravagant nor spectacular.
It is not a combat style.
This activity is not calisthenics.
Not an act of acrobatics
It does not qualify as a sport.
To clear up some further misunderstandings:
Learning Wing Chun won’t make you unstoppable against a group of 20, 10, or even one (in reality, no martial art can do this)
Nothing you do, not even being in the same room as a grandmaster or adopting any of his habits, will suddenly cause you to become as skilled as he is.
You will only necessarily become skilled if you’ve trained with the best sifu (teacher).
And finally, a grandmaster could be more exceptional in skill or knowledge.
It is essential to remember that movies and television programs are produced primarily for entertainment by conglomerates and tycoons to generate megadollar, not to advance facts, truth, or reality. Their purpose is to distort and fictionalize reality, create illusions, and evoke human emotion by removing the audience from reality. These films and television programs are designed for entertainment purposes, which is acceptable; however, when they depict a martial art such as Wing Chun, the viewer must remember that the depictions have been sensationalized for entertainment purposes. Simply put, the martial arts action sequences in these various media presentations do not accurately represent the art’s principles. The Wing Chun system takes pride in its economy, effectiveness, and directness. It accomplishes this by teaching the practitioner to defend and attack with all his limbs simultaneously.
Wing Chun is not a sport-oriented martial art form, and it is a basic form of self-defense for everyday people against everyday people. It is a fighting style based on the concept of efficiency in combat. The goal is to teach everyone simple, practical actions that people can use on most people in most situations. Although people could apply this strategy to any fighting style, there is a Kung Fu martial art style that focuses solely on this approach. Wing Chun is a self-defense concept that focuses on close combat and employs punches, levers, and throws. According to the skill theory, the person with a better body structure wins the fight. The ideal system is like bamboo: solid but flexible, stable but mobile.
European Traditional Wing Chun Kung Fu Association
Address: 11 North Ave, Chelmsford CM1 2AL, United Kingdom
They can provide you with the expertise and knowledge you seek in martial art. Master Derek Jones, their teacher, studied the modified system with Victor Kan and the traditional method with Grandmaster William Cheung. Master Frank Roach and Master Mark Clark studied modified and traditional Wing Chun. They have chosen to teach the classic art of Wing Chun, which they have tested in dangerous real-life situations. They are available to everyone who wants to learn a higher level of martial arts; men, women, and children over 12 are welcome, regardless of fitness level.
US Wing Chun Kung Fu Academy
Address: 1267 20th Ave, San Francisco, CA 94122, United States
Grandmaster Chris Chan, a first-generation student of the late Grandmaster Ip Man, founded the school in San Francisco in 1960. During his training in Hong Kong, Grandmaster Chris Chan studied alongside martial arts legend Bruce Lee. Grandmaster Chris Chan has taught Wing Chun Kung Fu to students of all ages for over 60 years and continues to carry on the tradition. Adults, teens, and juniors/children can all take classes.
Grandmaster Chan Kam Shing (Chris Chan) was born in the Year of the Dragon in Hong Kong. He saw Wing Chun for the first time in 1955. This experience impacted the young Chris Chan so much that he sought out and became a student of the legendary master Ip Man. Master Chan Wah Shun, the famous Wing Chun instructor, taught only a select group of students in Fu San, Canton Province, Southern China, in the late nineteenth century. Ip Man, seven years old, had a strong desire to learn. When approached, Master Chan Wah Shun was impressed by young Ip Man’s enthusiasm and accepted him as his final pupil.
IWKA Kung Fu Hong Kong
Address: Hong Kong, Sheung Wan, Des Voeux Rd Central, 285號2B Kam Hong Building
The Hong Kong Academy of Kung Fu is a school in Sheung Wan affiliated with the International Association of Internal Wisdom and Knowledge (The IWKA). They are recognized as one of the leading organizations for developing the Body, Mind, and Energy through Wing Chun and Taiji arts
Sifu Sergio Pascal Iadarola has extensively studied Chinese Martial Arts. He has combined his 30 years of experience and extensive research into Chinese martial arts history, philosophy, concepts, and principles with modern Western teaching methods.
More than any other sport, the IWKA Kung Fu program allows your child to discover their natural abilities! With their well-known IWKA System, your child will marvel (as will you) as they gain strength, flexibility, endurance, balance, and harmony. However, this is just the beginning. The child’s physical abilities are the foundation for something far more important: the development of their mental and spiritual skills.
The Academy is registered in Societies Registration Act VI of 1998 (1941 A.D.) Recognized by Jammu and Kashmir State Sports Council Affiliated with Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (District Srinagar J&K), An Autonomous Body Under the Ministry Of Youth Affairs And Sports Government of India. They aimed to empower youth to climb the success ladder by enrolling them in sports, self-defense, and moral education. Sport is a low-cost tool that can help improve the world. Their vision is to use sports to make their society’s youth, particularly the females, a better and more secure place to live. Contribute to the country’s development through youth empowerment, Olympic medals, sports as a carrier, and the protection of women who want to learn martial arts.
The London Wing Chun Academy
Address: Cypress House, 2 Coburg Rd, London N22 6UJ, United Kingdom
The London Wing Chun Academy is a one-of-a-kind martial arts and self-defense training facility that caters to students, from beginners to advanced. Dr. Mark Phillips, the Head Instructor, has over 35 years of experience in various martial arts and self-defense concepts. The Academy allows students to improve their fitness, mindset, and self-defense skills in a safe and welcoming learning environment.
The Academy promotes an inclusive, supportive, and welcoming environment where they will assist you in progressing through your training and toward your goals. Everyone, from complete beginners to advanced practitioners, is welcome. Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, MMA, Sanda Kickboxing, Wing Chun, Fitness classes, gym equipment, free weights, heavy bags, wooden dummies, open mats, and a shower area are available at The Academy.
Mark Phillips created The Academy’s teaching methodology to encourage, support, push, and empower those serious about martial arts, fitness, and self-defense. His knowledge of biomechanics and psychology has also been combined to create a practical and effective teaching environment and self-defense system. He also aimed to equip students with the ability to apply their skills in any real-life situation.
5 Elements Martial Arts & Wellness Center
Address: 8324 Parkway Dr, La Mesa, CA 91942, United States
Their martial arts programs include Northern Shaolin Kung Fu, Wing Chun self-defense, and Japanese Jiu Jitsu. Northern Shaolin Kung Fu is a Chinese martial arts style that emphasizes long-range techniques, quick advances and retreats, wide stances, quickness, and agility. It also improves balance, self-control, and knowledge of body mechanics. Wing Chun self-defense is introduced in their adolescent lessons but developed fully in their adult curriculum. This style emphasizes the practical application of self-defense moves and the ability to fully protect oneself efficiently and effectively. Grappling and ground self-defense teach people what to do if they are thrown to the ground. While not always desirable, a grappling match can be very advantageous for the person who understands how to use the environment to their advantage. Their curriculum teaches people of all ages how to prepare for a situation like this effectively.
Applied Wing Chun Okinawa
Address: 2F, 1 Chome-9-37 Kubota, Okinawa, 904-0023, Japan
Applied Wing Chun teaches students how to fight with Wing Chun in a realistic, real-world setting. They don’t teach forms and then teach how to fight differently, using moves and principles that aren’t in the states. They also do not teach fantasy techniques that would not be effective against a live resisting opponent. They teach how to use and apply the moves and principles learned in the forms effectively and directly to practical use.
Their drills and exercises are derived directly from the forms’ moves, techniques, and principles. Beginning with the first lesson, you will start to learn strategies for self-defense. They will begin training by teaching the fundamentals, emphasizing correctness in all movements using proper body alignment and body structure.
They also emphasize understanding the theories and concepts underlying each movement and technique so that you can gain confidence in your processes through understanding and repetition. Questions are strongly encouraged to ensure the user understands the methods and activities. Students gradually develop the ability to apply their skills without thinking about it. As they progress, some students choose to compete in MMA or kickboxing events. Others practice for personal protection and a good workout. They have a very close-knit bond with their classes and consider everyone who trains with them to be family. They form bonds that extend far beyond the school through their training.
Wing Tsun Concepts Academy
Address: C. de JosepEstivill, 32, 08027 Barcelona, Spain
Wing Tsun Concepts Academy was founded in 2010 in Barcelona by Sifu Arthur Sánchez, a member of the International Alliance of Wing Tsun Academies with offices in Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Egypt, and Spain. Year after year, their school has grown into a well-connected organization in the world of Wing Tsun. The school regularly holds classes and seminars in Barcelona and actively participates in European workshops with internationally recognized teachers.
Wing Tsun Concepts Academy was founded in 2010 in Barcelona by Sifu Arthur Sánchez, a member of the International Alliance of Wing Tsun Academies with offices in Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Egypt, and Spain. Year after year, their school has grown into a well-connected organization in the world of Wing Tsun. The school regularly holds classes and seminars in Barcelona and actively participates in European workshops with internationally recognized teachers.
Wing Tsun Concept Academy is the peninsula’s only Academy that teaches Wing Tsun in the traditional Hong Kong style, as taught by the masters there. At Wing Tsun Concepts, they teach from the three pillars that this style is built on: the structure, how to focus the center line, and how to direct the force. It is a series of non-contact movements and positions similar to those in other martial arts. However, each activity serves a purpose. The forms help know the correct way to perform the actions in subsequent applications. Thus they are essential in their student’s education.
Wing Chun (VingTsun) Kung Fu Institute of Learning
This ClubClub in Calgary practices Wing Chun (VingTsun) as passed down by Great Grand Master Ip Man to Grand Master Moy Yat and then to Grand Master Greco Wong. This ClubClub is managed by 3rd generation direct descendants of Ip Man – Kam Wong and Tony Yung. Both are long-term disciples of Grand Master Greco Wong. They run 3 Classes a week at two locations in Calgary, AB, Canada – Thorncliff Community Centre and the Calgary Chinese Culture Centre.
They strive to keep the learning environment fun, safe, and friendly, free of ego and politics. Their class is treated more like a social club than a business. Getting too many students and making too much money is not their priority. They’re there to train, teach, and have a good time. They love seeing their students improve. Grand Master Greco Wong maintains a close relationship and makes occasional visits and seminars as his schedule allows.
VingTsun is one of the most effective self-defense techniques, even against ostensibly more vigorous opponents. As a result, VingTsun is also suitable for women, children, and teenagers. But there’s more to this Chinese martial art than meets the eye: it’s the path to self-discovery! The Martial Arts Center Duisburg has instilled values such as mindfulness, respect, and discipline for over ten years.
They have helped hundreds of people gain self-confidence, physical fitness, and security in threatening situations. They are also part of SifuGöksel Erdogan’s schools. Thanks to him, they drastically improved their Wing Chun/ VingTsun in such a short period. They are now collaborating with SifuGöksel to spread his one-of-a-kind method. There are no wait times or secrets. At any time, anyone is welcome.
We have plenty to think about and be concerned about in today’s modern society. Our thoughts flit from one to the next, anxious about the future, perhaps depressed about the past. We rarely find ourselves in the present moment, thinking in the present. When you believe in the present, your worries fade away, time seems to fly by, and you gain a sense of fulfillment. How do you attain this state, and how can you do so at will? This can be trained, but it always happens in real life. Anyone who has a hobby will be able to focus on their task for hours at a time.
Wing Chun Kung Fu’s benefits include improved body control, coordination, and balance. These are excellent advantages, similar to relearning how your body works. Body mechanics are responsible for body control. This entails learning how the body moves and, in Wing Chun, learning how to drive most efficiently and powerfully possible. For example, suppose the practitioner knows to relax the muscles and move from the joints. In that case, movement becomes more accessible, efficient, and powerful when used in Kung Fu.
All of these advantages become more apparent as we age. Having a strong ability to focus will benefit you throughout your life. Learning body mechanics, coordination, and balance are highly beneficial as we age, allowing us to age with complete control over our bodies. Similarly, with good posture, we can age with our spines in the proper shape, allowing us more freedom of movement in later life.
There are a lot of mixed opinions when it comes to the question, “Which martial arts is better? Wing Chun or mixed martial arts?” The answer depends on who you ask. When it comes to martial arts, there’s no shortage of options. Whether you’re looking for something more lighthearted or more intense, there are plenty of styles out there, and many of them have their own unique philosophies and techniques. For instance, if you’re into karate, you might find that karate has a lot in common with kickboxing and Muay Thai. If you’re into jujitsu or judo, those two styles might seem very different from each other. But what about Wing Chun? Does it have anything in common with MMA?
To better understand how these two disciplines compare, let’s start by looking at defining them and how they differ at their core: Wing Chun is a traditional Chinese martial art that is practiced in parts of China and Hong Kong. It’s sometimes called the “Internal Martial Arts” because it focuses on techniques that are done from within. Wing Chun practitioners use their body’s natural motions and energy flows to fight and defend themselves. Wing Chun tend to use their bodies’ natural movements, which makes it hard for fighters who are new to the style but also makes it difficult for experienced fighters. This type of fighting requires training over a long period of time so that you can learn how to defend yourself against multiple opponents at once—and win! A fighter will need both strength and agility in order to compete against others without getting hurt themselves.
MMA (Mixed Martial Arts) is a type of combat sport in which fighting takes place in a controlled environment by two or more participants, with striking and/or grappling techniques. In MMA, competitors do not use pre-written strategies but instead exchange punches, kicks, elbows, and knees while trying to knock each other out or submit them using submission holds.martial arts are all about self-defense; MMA is about fighting under controlled conditions. Wing Chun focuses on delivering powerful attacks at close range (as opposed to long-range attacks). On the other hand, MMA focuses on delivering punches and kicks at close range as well as striking with elbows, knees, and feet at long range. Wing Chun practitioners don’t use any weapons (except for sticks), whereas MMA practitioners can use any weapon they want including brass knuckles or nunchucks (for example). MMA (or mixed martial arts) is an extremely popular sport today, MMA focuses on wrestling, Jiu-Jitsu, and boxing techniques as well as other moves like kicks and punches. It also has very strict rules, which is why it was such an effective weapon for Royce Gracie.
The first thing I’d like to say is that both arts are great! They’re both very different, but they also have some striking similarities. In either case, there’s no doubt that these two sports are very good and different from one another when it comes to practice requirements and goals.
Wing Chun is not a sport-based martial art style. Wing Chun is a simple form of self-defense for ordinary people against ordinary people. It is a fighting art based on a combat strategy based on the concept of efficiency. The goal is to train simple, practical actions that everyone can use on most people in most situations. Although people could apply this strategy to any fighting style, there is a Kung Fu martial art style that focuses solely on this approach. Wing Chun is a conceptual self-defense skill specializing in close combat and employs punches, levers, and throws. The fight is won by the person with the better body structure, according to the theory of skill. The ideal system is like bamboo: solid but flexible, well-founded but mobile.
The Wing Chun martial art could theoretically use certain aspects of this strategy in an MMA arena. It appears to suffer from a lack of mobility and evasiveness. Also, practitioners have traditionally held ground in self-defense to attack directly with forwarding intent. While this is ideal for self-defense situations, it does not translate well to the game of timing and candor required for combat sports such as MMA. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a modern sporting phenomenon that has quickly surpassed boxing as a spectator sport. It consists of martial arts, including boxing, Muay Thai, wrestling, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. As a result, people frequently dismiss any other martial art style that is not one of these component styles, assuming that it is ineffective for actual fighting or self-defense. This criticism, understandably, frequently includes Wing Chun.
People are into MMA because of its immediacy. A punch is still a punch, a kick is still a kick, and a choke is still a choke. Though the result is similar to Wing Chun, there is a whole thought process and philosophy behind a specific action or movement. It all comes back to controlling space, moving efficiently, and directing action for us as Wing Chun practitioners. On the other hand, Wing Chun is simply the science of close-quarter fighting and is not intended or designed for Mixed Martial Arts or competitive fights. However, at a high level of practice, all martial arts, including Wing Chun, have more similarities than differences.Wing Chun is a fighting concept based on traditional Chinese martial art. Wing Chun is a self-defense style that focuses on defending against high-powered attacks. Wing Chun techniques are incredibly effective in mixed martial arts because they focus on preventing opponents’ attacks. Continuous punching and kicking are used in Wing Chun techniques to make the opponent nervous and defensive.
Wing Chun also employs hand trapping in close combat, which can be an excellent MMA move. MMA is a sanctioned fighting competition with strict rules, and any violation of those rules disqualifies the fighters. Most MMA fights make it illegal to strike the back of the head, fingers, throat, or groin. On the other hand, Wing Chun techniques place a strong emphasis on all of these targets and moves. Without practicing the primary Wing Chun techniques, it is nearly impossible for a Wing Chun fighter to win an MMA fight.